Saturday, August 6, 2016

Mass against the Pagans

The 1962 edition of the Roman Missal changed the title of the Votive Mass contra paganos to pro Ecclesiæ defensione (for the defence of the Church), but left all of its texts unchanged. Being a Votive Mass for a pressing need, it is said without Gloria in excelsis and Credo, and the sacred ministers wear violet vestments. If it is said by order or consent of the Ordinary for a grave and public reason (as, for example, in contemporary France), it ranks as a Votive of the II class, and the salutations, orations, lessons and so forth are sung to the solemn tone; otherwise, it is of the IV class, and the ferial tone is employed. 

The Dominican Missal changes the term "pagans" (also commonly translated as "heathen") to "Turks and heretics", but this seems a little tactless. There is a ruling, centuries past (I think in Gavantus), proscribing the change of the word "pagans" in this Mass of the Roman Missal into other more specific terms, such as Moors, Turks and Saracens, for example, so it is probably best to leave the word "pagans" in place. 

Such wicked deluded zealots of another, ahem, Abrahamic religion as currently carry out atrocities are, in point of fact, acting precisely as barbaric pagan votaries of devils, so they deserve to be prayed against in those terms. The martyred Fr Hamel was quite right to rebuke his murders as agents of Satan in his last words. May God by his grace convert all such by a great miracle!

(For this cause, the corresponding prayer pro inimicis could be profitably added after each of the three proper orations of this Mass, as is allowable if it be of the IV class – I include these below, for, just as we should pray for protection against our enemies, we should also pray for our enemies themselves, that they be converted and saved.)

Apparently the Collect, Secret and Postcommunion of this Mass have been used as a triplet together since the 11th century, unsurprisingly in connexion with prayer for the success of the Crusades, and Pope Calixtus III promulgated the full Mass proper by his Bull Cum hiis superioribus of 20th June 1456, though I have not yet found a copy thereof. 

Other researches of mine have revealed no Sequence once used for this Mass (as similar Votive Masses generally did not have Sequences), but several Prefaces contra Paganos exist, and I include a slight abbreviation and conflation of two of them in the following texts.

The Mass against the Pagans is liturgically well-structured, being a holy recycling of chants, lessons and prayers from earlier Masses, thus:

Int. Exsurge – Liber Usualis, 504 (Sexagesima Sunday)
Or. O. s. Ds, in cujus – (Cf. Good Friday, Prayer for the Roman Emperor)
Ep. Oravit Mardochæus – (Wednesday after Second Sunday of Lent)
Grad. Sciant gentesLiber Usualis, 506 (Sexagesima Sunday)
All. Excita Domine – Liber Usualis, 336 (Third Sunday of Advent)
Tr. Adjuvanot in Liber Usualis; 1961 Graduale Romanum [131]
All. Deus virtutumnot in Liber Usualis; 1961 Graduale Romanum [132]
Evang. Quis vestrum – (Rogation Mass)
Off. Populum humilemLiber Usualis, 1015 (Eighth Sunday after Pentecost)
V. Clamor & LiberatorOffertoriale, 93
Secr. Sacrificium (Cf. Mass in Time of War, Secret)
Comm. In salutariLiber Usualis, 1069 (Twenty-first Sunday after Pentecost)
PC. Protector noster(Cf. Votive Prayer for Defence against Foes, Postcommunion)

The way the prayers of this Mass were adapted from earlier sources is instructive:

Oratio
Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, in cujus manu sunt omnium potestates et omnium jura regnorum: respice in auxilium christianorum; ut gentes paganorum, quæ in sua feritate confidunt, dexteræ tuæ potentia conterantur. Per.
(Cf. Good Friday, Solemn Prayers, Prayer for the Roman Emperor:
Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, in cujus manu sunt omnium potestates et omnium jura regnorum: respice ad Romanum benign us Imperium; ut gentes, quæ in sua feritate confidunt, potentiæ tuæ dextera comprimantur. Per.)

Secreta
Sacrificium, Domine, quod immolamus, intende: ut propugnatores tuos ab omni eruas paganorum nequitia, et in tuæ protectionis securitate constituas. Per. 
(Cf. Tempore Belli, Secreta:
Sacrificium, Domine, quod immolamus, intende placatus: ut ab omni nos eruat bellorum nequitia, et in tuæ protectionis securitate constituat. Per.)

Postcommunio 
Protector noster, aspice, Deus: et propugnatores tuos a paganorum defende periculis; ut, omni perturbatione submota, liberis tibi mentibus deserviant. Per.
(Cf. Pro defensione ab hostibus, Postcommunio:
Protector noster, aspice, Deus, et ab inimicorum nos defende periculis: ut, omni perturbatione submota, liberis tibi mentibus serviamus. Per.)

In these prayers, we pray that the pagan nations who trust in their own ferocity may be crushed by the power of God's right hand (Collect), and that those who fight for us may escape all pagan snares and perils (Secret and Postcommunion): or, in modern-day terms, may Daesh, Boko Haram, etc. be smashed and all police, military and security services win out against terrorists, that God by his aid may keep us safe.

The handy Versus Psalmorum et Canticorum, 134, suggests various verses of Psalm 118 to be sung with the Communion antiphon In salutari on the 21st Sunday after Pentecost, but since these psalm-verses can be freely chosen, I would suggest a more apposite selection (Ps. 118, 53. 61. 85. 87. 95. 98. 110. 126. 139. 150. 157) when the same Communion is used at Mass against the Pagans.

In France, it was long the custom to sing O salutaris hostia after the Elevation, and this is still done today at some EF Masses there. This being a prayer to Christ our Sacrifice for delivery from our foes, it would be highly appropriate to sing this as a Motet during or after Communion at this Votive Mass (in France itself, after Communion at some EF Masses, Domine salvam fac Galliam is sung at the same point).

As for the Offertory, if some Motet be desired, there are many settings of the Matins Responsory Congregati sunt inimici nostri (used during October, when the books of the Machabees are read during the Night Office), which would be most suitable – I happen to like the setting by Clément Janequin (music here) – and I give the Latin amongst the other texts of the Mass below. 




Here is a translation of it:

R. Our enemies are gathered together, and make their boast of their own strength. O Lord, break their power, and scatter them: * That they may know that there is none other that fighteth for us, but only thou, O our God. V. Scatter them in thy strength, and destroy them, O Lord our Shield. *That they may know that there is none other that fighteth for us, but only thou, O our God. Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost. * That they may know that there is none other that fighteth for us, but only thou, O our God.

Another suitable Matins responsory, also used during October, would be Impetum inimicorum ne timueritis, set by several composers. Indeed, if polyphony be employed at this Mass, either Janequin's Missa super « La Bataille » (music here) or Victoria's more ambitious nine-part Missa pro Victoria  (music here) – both based on Janequin's own chanson commemorating the French victory at the Battle of Marignano in 1515 – could be fitting choices.

Missa pro Ecclesiæ defensione (olim, contra Paganos)

Antiphona ad Introitum (Ps. 43, 23-24 et 25-26)
Exsurge, quare obdormis, Domine? exsurge, et ne repellas in finem: quare faciem tuam avertis, oblivisceris tribulationem nostram? Adhæsit in terra venter noster: exsurge, Domine, adjuva nos, et libera nos. (T. P. Alleluja, alleluja.) 
Ps. ibid., 2 Deus, auribus nostris audivimus: patres nostri annuntiaverunt nobis.
V. Gloria Patri.

Oratio
Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, in cujus manu sunt omnium potestates et omnium jura regnorum: respice in auxilium christianorum; ut gentes paganorum, quæ in sua feritate confidunt, dexteræ tuæ potentia conterantur. Per Dominum.

ad lib., Oratio pro inimicis
Deus, pacis caritatisque amator et custos: da omnibus inimicis nostris pacem caritatemque veram; et cunctorum eis remissionem tribue peccatorum, nosque ab eorum insidiis potenter eripe. Per Dominum.

Lectio libri Esther. (13, 8-11 et 15-17)

In diebus illis: Oravit Mardochæus ad Dominum, dicens: Domine, Domine Rex omnipotens, in dicione enim tua cuncta sunt posita, et non est qui possit tuæ resistere voluntati, si decreveris salvare Israël. Tu fecisti cælum et terram, et quidquid cæli ambitu continetur. Dominus omnium es, nec est qui resistat majestati tuæ. Et nunc, Domine Rex, Deus Abraham, miserere populi tui, quia volunt nos inimici nostri perdere, et hereditatem tuam delere. Ne despicias partem tuam, quam redemisti tibi de Ægypto. Exaudi deprecationem meam, et propitius esto sorti et funiculo tuo, et converte luctum nostrum in gaudium, ut viventes laudemus nomen tuum, Domine, et ne claudas ora te canentium, Domine Deus noster.

Graduale (Ps. 82, 19 et 14) 
Sciant gentes, quoniam nomen tibi Deus: tu solus Altissimus super omnem terram. 
V. Deus meus, pone illos ut rotam, et sicut stipulam ante faciem venti.

Alleluja, alleluja. 
V. Ps. 79, 3 Excita, Domine, potentiam tuam, et veni: ut salvos facias nos. 
Alleluja.

Post Septuagesimam, omissis Alleluia et versu sequenti, dicitur:

Tractus (Ps. 78, 9-11)
Adjuva nos, Deus salutaris noster: et propter honorem nominis tui, Domine, libera nos: et propitius esto peccatis nostris, propter nomen tuum. 
V. Ne quando dicant gentes: Ubi est Deus eorum? et innotescat in nationibus coram oculis nostris. 
V. Vindica sanguinem servorum tuorum, qui effusus est: intret in conspectu tuo gemitus compeditorum.

Tempore autem paschali omittitur graduale, et eius loco dicitur:

Alleluja, alleluja. 
V. Ps. 79, 3 Excita, Domine, potentiam tuam, et veni: ut salvos facias nos.
Alleluja.
V. Ibid., 15-16 Deus virtutum, convertere, respice de cælo, et vide, et visita vineam istam: et perfice eam, quam plantavit dextera tua.
Alleluja.

Sequentia sancti Evangelii secundum Lucam. (11, 5-13) 

In illo tempore: Dixit Jesus discipulis suis: Quis vestrum habebit amicum, et ibit ad illum media nocte, et dicet illi: Amice, commoda mihi tres panes, quoniam amicus meus venit de via ad me, et non habeo quod ponam ante illum: et ille deintus respondens, dicat: Noli mihi molestus esse, jam ostium clausum est, et pueri mei mecum sunt in cubili, non possum surgere et dare tibi. Et si ille perseveraverit pulsans: dico vobis, et si non dabit illi surgens eo quod amicus ejus sit, propter improbitatem tamen ejus surget, et dabit illi quotquot habet necessarios. Et ego dico vobis: Petite, et dabitur vobis: quærite, et invenietis: pulsate, et aperietur vobis. Omnis enim qui petit, accipit: et qui quærit, invenit: et pulsanti aperietur. Quis autem ex vobis patrem petit panem: numquid lapidem dabit illi? Aut piscem: numquid pro pisce serpentem dabit illi? Aut si petierit ovum: numquid porriget illi scorpionem? Si ergo vos, cum sitis mali, nostis bona data dare filiis vestris: quanto magis Pater vester de cælo dabit spiritum bonum petentibus se?

Ant. ad Offertorium (Ps. 17, 28. 32. 7. 48-49)
Populum humilem salvum facies: et oculos superborum humiliabis: * Quoniam quis Deus præter te, Domine? (T. P. Alleluja.)
ad lib., V. 1. Clamor meus in conspectu ejus introivit in aures ejus. * Quoniam quis Deus præter te, Domine? (T. P. Alleluja.)
ad lib., V. 2. Liberator meus de gentibus iracundis: ab insurgentibus in me exaltabis me. * Quoniam quis Deus præter te, Domine? (T. P. Alleluja.)

ad lib., Motectum ad Offertorium (Cf. Ecclus 36, 12-13; Agg. 2, 23; Pss. 48, 7; 58, 12)
R. Congregati sunt inimici nostri, et gloriantur in virtute sua; contere fortitudinem illorum, Domine, et disperge illos: * Ut cognoscant, quia non est alius qui pugnet pro nobis, nisi tu, Deus noster. V. Disperge illos in virtute tua, et destrue eos, protector noster, Domine. * Ut cognoscant, quia non est alius qui pugnet pro nobis, nisi tu, Deus noster. Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto. * Ut cognoscant, quia non est alius qui pugnet pro nobis, nisi tu, Deus noster. 

Secreta
Sacrificium, Domine, quod immolamus, intende: ut propugnatores tuos ab omni eruas paganorum nequitia, et in tuæ protectionis securitate constituas. Per Dominum.

ad lib., Secreta pro inimicis

Oblatis, quæsumus, Domine, placare muneribus: et nos ab inimicis nostris clementer eripe, eisque indulgentiam tribue delictorum. Per Dominum.

Olim Præfatio contra Paganos
Vere dignum et justum est, æquum et salutare, nos tibi semper et ubique gratias agere, Domine, sancte Pater, omnipotens æterne Deus: Clementiam tuam humiliter implorantes, ut omni Ecclesiæ tuæ præstes auxilium: ut, sicut liberasti filios Israël de manu Ægyptiorum, ita liberes populum christianum de oppressione paganorum, et des victoriam servis tuis: Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Per quem majestatem tuam laudant Angeli, adorant Dominationes, tremunt Potestates. Cæli cælorumque Virtutes, ac beata Seraphim, socia exsultatione concelebrant. Cum quibus et nostras voces ut admitti jubeas, deprecamur, supplici confessione dicentes:

Antiphona ad Communionem Ps. 118, 81, 84 et 86 
In salutari tuo anima mea, et in verbum tuum speravi: quando facies de persequentibus me judicium? Iniqui persecuti sunt me, adjuva me, Domine Deus meus. (T. P. Alleluja.)

ad lib., Versus Psalmorum (Ps. 118, 53. 61. 85. 87. 95. 98. 110. 126. 139. 150. 157)
1. Defectio tenuit me, pro peccatoribus derelinquentibus legem tuam.
2. Funes peccatorum circumplexi sunt me, et legem tuam non sum oblitus.
3. Narraverunt mihi iniqui fabulationes, sed non ut lex tua.
4. Paulo minus consummaverunt me in terra; ego autem non dereliqui mandata tua.
5. Me exspectaverunt peccatores ut perderent me; testimonia tua intellexi.
6. Super inimicos meos prudentem me fecisti mandato tuo, quia in æternum mihi est.
7. Posuerunt peccatores laqueum mihi, et de mandatis tuis non erravi.
8. Tempus faciendi, Domine; dissipaverunt legem tuam.
9. Tabescere me fecit zelus meus, quia obliti sunt verba tua inimici mei.
10. Appropinquaverunt persequentes me iniquitati, a lege autem tua longe facti sunt.
11. Multi qui persequuntur me, et tribulant me; a testimoniis tuis non declinavi.
Gloria Patri.

ad lib., Motectum ad Communionem (attr. S. Th. Aq.)
O salutaris Hostia,
Quæ cæli pandis ostium: 
Bella premunt hostilia; 
Da robur, fer auxilium.

Uni trinoque Domino
Sit sempiterna gloria:
Qui vitam sine termino 
Nobis donet in patria. Amen.

Postcommunio 
Protector noster, aspice, Deus: et propugnatores tuos a paganorum defende periculis; ut, omni perturbatione submota, liberis tibi mentibus deserviant. Per Dominum.

ad lib., Postcommunio pro inimicis
Hæc nos communio, Domine, eruat a delictis: et ab inimicorum defendat insidiis. Per Dominum.

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