Thursday, January 28, 2010

The Third Quotidian Sunday

So far as I can work out, this week is that of the third Quotidian Sunday in the modern recension of the Mozarabic Rite.

(What a great term, de cotidiano, or quotidian - much better than stupid "Ordinary Time".)

Before I continue, note, concerned Traditionalists, that the restoration of the ancient Spanish form of Mass was a conscious return to the ancient purity of that tradition, removing the late mediæval Romano-Toledan additions that were present in the first printed edition made under the great humanist Cardinal Ximenes in 1500 - it can clearly be seen that the introduction of not one but two offertories, plus a long preparation, all composed of evidently Roman formulæ, was an unnecessary complication of the Mozarabic Mass, and it was quite right to restore it to the form it had under St Isidore of Seville, Bishop, Confessor and Doctor, who detailed the central seven prayers of the Mass he knew.

In any case, the fore-Mass of the Mozarabic Rite is of the simplest: on all ferias (such as to-day, were the Sunday Mass to be repeated) and fast days, the priest and ministers enter without chant, he prays secretly while bowing before the altar, kisses it, salutes the people, and straightway has the readings begin.  This is exactly how Mass began in the churches of North Africa at the time of St Augustine, as his sermons make clear.

On Sundays and feasts, however, there is an entrance chant like unto the Roman Introit, and Gloria in excelsis, followed by a prayer - these latter being evident imitations of the Roman Rite, since the Gallican Mass, brother to the Mozarabic, instead had the singing of the Benedictus at this point.

In any case, there are always three lessons (four in Lent), culminating in the Gospel - after which, and not before, by command of an early Council of Toledo, the Laudes or Alleluia is sung.  That ends the first half of Mass.


But I am interested in the way that the variable prayers of the ancient Spanish Mass mesh with the invariable prayers of the Mass.  To this end, I (and Google Translator) have dashed off a rough and ready English version of these prayers...

First, the structure: the offerings are prepared and the altar set while the Sacrificium is sung; there is a first variable prayer, the Missa or Oratio Admonitionis, serving as introduction to the Mass and the prayers; the intercessions begin; then comes the Alia or second variable prayer, introducing the further diptychs, commemorating the living and the dead and all the saints, and concluding with the third variable prayer, the Oratio post Nomina.  It is very important to note the strong sacrificial language throughout: the priests, the Pope and all, the people and the Holy Catholic Church offers...

Next, there comes the rite of the sign of peace (with the fourth variable prayer, ad Pacem).

The priest goes to the altar, and begins the frequently very lengthy preface, or Illatio (which word means Offering Up, much as does the Greek Anaphora), the fifth variable prayer.  The Sanctus over, the surprisingly brief post Sanctus (conceived of as the continuation of the Illatio) serves to introduce the Consecration by the Words of the Lord; a primitive epicletic and oblationary post Pridie (the sixth variable prayer) follows, and soon its doxology.

Surprisingly, next comes the Creed, introduced at this point at the conversion of the Visigoths!  After that, the complex Mozarabic fraction takes place, and then the seventh variable prayer, the introduction to the Lord's Prayer or ad orationem Dominicam leads into the Pater noster, with a succinct embolism or prayer of intercession after it, whose doxology appears to stem from the Roman Rite.

The Byzantine formula Sancta sanctis follows (as the priest displays the chalice and paten to the people), and then the commixture, and a blessing (variable) before communion - which, when one thinks about it, is really the better position for it: such a blessing prepares the people for communion, whereas one afterward seems superfluous!  Communion given, a collect (probably imitating the Roman postcommunion) and dismissal concludes the Mass.

In order to say Mass in this rite - as daily since 1500 (excepting during anticlerical massacres in the Spanish Civil War) in the Mozarabic Chapel of Toledo Cathedral - the priest needs to have not just one missal plus altarcards, as in the classical Roman Rite, but must have on one side a missal with the variable prayers, the Proper of the day to use the Roman terminology, and on the other another missal with the invariable prayers of the Mass set out at length.

I'd like to see that... I am thinking about visiting Spain at the end of this year...


Herewith, the second half of the Mozarabic Mass for the 3rd Quotidian Sunday, from the Sacrificium (offertory) chant to the end of the liturgy:


(Genesis 14:18-19; 13:14-15,18)
V/.  Melchisedech, king of peace, priest of God most high, offered bread and wine, and blessed Abraham, saying: Blessed be Abraham by God most high, Who created the heavens and earth, alleluia, alleluia, alleluia.
V/.  The Lord said to Abraham: Lift up thine eyes and see from the east to the south, to the north and to the sea.  All the land which thou seest, unto thee shall I give it and to thy seed for ever.  Abraham moving, came and dwelt at the oak of Mambre which was in Hebron.
R/.  By God most high, Who created the heavens and earth, alleluia, alleluia, alleluia.

The Deacon spreads the cloth over the altar and places there the paten with bread.  Also he pours wine and some water into the chalice.  Then he places the chalice on the altar. 

As the occasion warrants, the Priest may cense the oblations and the altar.  Standing at the side of the altar, he washes his hands, saying nothing.


Dear Brothers:
In order to obtain the mercy of the Lord, we pray with all our spirit, we present to God, through whom we want to be heard, the unanimous feelings and desires of our community, that the Catholic Church, which stem from our interest and efforts in hosting His love for all purposes, to rightly dispense her desired goods to all.
Be there one confession of faith, by extension numerous; unique in its sacraments, not only in one place; scattered, but not divided; illustrious in priests, and prudent in teachers; peaceful in brotherhood, holy in ministers; faultless in ministers, incorrupt in virgins; helpful in widows, rich in believers; free among the nations, caring for the sick; to penitents forgiving, clement toward the lost; rich for the needy, humble with the poor, generous thanks to the rich.
So full of all good, that for us is made potent, for us and to recover those who seek and retain those who have recovered.
R/.  Amen.

By help of His mercy, Who liveth and reigneth, God, unto the ages of the ages.
R/.  Amen.

Let us pray.
R/.  Hagios, Hagios, Hagios, Lord God, King eternal, to Thee be praise and thanks.

The deacon recites the Diptych:
Let us have in mind in our prayers the Holy Catholic Church, that the Lord propitiously deign to augment her faith, hope and charity.
R/.  Grant it, eternal, almighty God.
Let us have in mind all the lapsed*, captive*, infirm and pilgrims, that the Lord propitiously deign to regard, redeem, heal and strengthen them.
R/.  Grant it, eternal, almighty God.

[* This petition seems to date from before the end of the Roman Persecutions.]

O God, Whose clemency is ineffable, piety profound, mercy infinite, magnitude inestimable, Who art so angered that Thou correct, castigatest that Thou recall, corrects that Thou emend, invitest that Thou love, scourgest that Thou spare, generously embrace and propitiously behold the prayers of Thy people; and because what we deserve, or what we suffer Thou knowest, by Thee grant unto us what Thou art prayed; that from all temptations of the enemy, which snares that adversary of our soul without ceasing has laid, freed by the power of Thy right, may we deserve to be admitted to Thy kingdom.
R/.  Amen.

By Thy mercy, our God, in Whose sight the names of the holy Apostles and Martyrs, Confessors and Virgins are recited.
R/.  Amen.

The deacon recites the other Diptych:
Our Priests, N. the Pope of Rome and the rest, offer oblations to the Lord God for themselves and for all the clergy, and for the people of the Church assigned to them, and for the universal brotherhood.
R/.  They offer for themselves and for the universal brotherhood.
Again all Priests, deacons, clergy and the people standing around offer in honour of the Saints, for them and theirs.
R/.  They offer for themselves and for the universal brotherhood.
Making commemoration of the most blessed Apostles and Martyrs, the glorious Saint Mary the Virgin, Zachary, John [Baptist], the Infants [the Holy Innocents], Stephen, Peter and Paul, John [Evangelist], James, Andrew, Acisclus, Torquatus, Fructuosus, Felix, Vincent, Eulogius, Justus and Pastor, Justa and Rufina, Eulalia, the other Eulalia, Leocadia.
R/.  And of all Martyrs.
Names of other martyrs may be added.
Again, of the Confessors Hilary, Athanasius, Martin, Ambrose, Augustine, Fulgentius, Leander, Isidore, Braulio, Eugene, Ildephonsus, Julian.
R/.  And of all Confessors.
Names of other saints may be added.
The holy Catholic Church of God offers for the souls of all the sleeping, that the Lord propitiously deign to emplace them among the assembly of the blessed.
R/.  Grant it, eternal, almighty God.

Be present, Lord, to our supplications , and fill the oblations of Thy servants with Thy power, let the petition of no one be empty, let the vow of no one be unfulfilled; that what each has offered to the honour of Thy name, may both profit all the living unto salvation, and avail all the dead unto rest.
R/.  Amen.

For Thou art the life of the living, the health of the infirm, and the rest of all the faithful departed to eternal ages of ages.
R/.  Amen.


Stand present, Lord God, Father almighty, to our prayers, and grant unto us the plenitude of charity and peace: that we all who confide in Thy mercy, may live ever in hope and in charity without end.
R/.  Amen.

For Thou art our true peace and unbroken charity, Who livest – with Thee – and reignest* with the Holy Spirit, one God, unto ages of ages.
R/.  Amen.

[*vivens tecum et regnas: a very odd piece of Latin, which can only be understood if addressed to the Son “Who is our peace”, yet suddenly turning to address the Father and back again.]

The priest extends his hands over the people, saying:
The grace of God the Father almighty, the peace and love of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the communion of the Holy Spirit be ever with all of you.
R/.  And with men of good will.

The deacon tells the people:
Howso you stand, make peace.


My peace I give you, My peace I commend to you.
V/.  Not as the world gives peace, I give to you.
R/.  My peace I give you, My peace I commend to you.
V/.  A new commandment I give unto you that you love one another.
R/.  My peace I give you, My peace I commend to you.
Glory and honour to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Spirit, unto the ages of the ages.  Amen.
R/.  My peace I give you, My peace I commend to you.


The priest proceeds to the altar.  Standing before the altar, he says:
I will go to the altar of my God.
R/.  To God Who gives joy to my youth.
The deacon warns the people:
Ears to the Lord!
R/.  We have them to the Lord.
Extending his hands the priest continues:
Up with hearts!
R/.  We lift them to the Lord.
The priest says:
To our God and Lord Jesus Christ the Son of God, Who is in heaven, we refer worthy praise and worthy thanks.
R/.  It is right and just.

With extended hands the priest says or sings:

Praise is always right and necessary, eternal and omnipotent God, and to give thanks unceasingly with all our might, to Thee, with Thine only begotten Son, our Lord, and with the Holy Ghost, Who art one God in three persons and a single Lord in Trinity.
And what we believe of Thy glory, because Thou assert it, also equally revealed of Thy Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, and of the Holy Spirit, so that in confessing the true and eternal divinity, we worship what is proper to each person: divine unity in equal majesty and divinity.
For Thou, one true God, faith becomes aware, for to weakness Thou givest strength, and ruthless persecution and terrible death, Thou dost overcome successfully by the confession of Thy name. Therefore, all angels and archangels are constantly praising Thee, saying:

[* This is an elaboration of the Roman Rite Preface of the Trinity.]

Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Sabaoth.  Full are the heavens and earth of the glory of Thy Majesty.  Hosanna to the Son of David.  Blessed is He Who cometh in the Name of the Lord.  Hosanna in the highest.  Hagios, Hagios, Hagios, Kyrie, o Theos.

With extended hands the priest says or sings:

Truly Thou art holy, Lord, and Thy sanctity brighter than all the saints, Whom His heavenly and terrestrial creatures confess and laud as Lord; for Thou art the propitiation of sins and of all the faithful.
God the Lord and the Redeemer eternal.

Who the day before He suffered, took bread and giving thanks, blessed and broke, and gave to His disciples, saying: Take and eat: This is My Body, which is given up for you.  Whensoever ye shall eat It, do this in My commemoration.
R/.  Amen.
And similarly the chalice after they had supped, saying: This is the chalice of the new testament in My Blood, which for you and for many is poured out in remission of sins.  Whensoever ye shall drink It, do this in My commemoration.
R/.  Amen.
Whensoever ye shall eat this Bread and drink this Chalice, ye shall announce the death of the Lord until He come in glory from the heavens.
R/.  So we believe, Lord Jesus.

With extended hands the priest says or sings:

Sanctify, Lord, the gift of the offered Victim, and stand propitious to the vows of the faithful; that both Thou accept what is offered, and, propitiated, sanctify those who are offering.
R/.  Amen.

With joined hands the priest concludes the Eucharistic Prayer with this doxology.  The priest signs the Gifts with the sign of the cross at the word vivifiest:

Grant this, Father unbegotten, by Thy Onlybegotten, our Lord Jesus Christ, through Whom Thou, for us Thy unworthy servants, createst exceedingly good, sanctifiest, + vivifiest, blessest and grantest unto us all these things, that they be blessed by Thee our God unto the ages of the ages.
R/.  Amen.


The faith, which we believe with our heart, now with our mouth let us say:

We* believe in one God the Father almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, of all things visible and invisible the Creator.
And in one Lord our Jesus Christ, the Onlybegotten Son of God, and born of the Father before all ages.  God from God, Light from Light.  True God from True God, born not made, Omousion Patri, that is, of the same substance with the Father, through Whom all was made, things in heaven and things on earth.
Who for us men, and for our salvation, descended from the heavens, and was incarnate by the Holy Spirit of Mary the Virgin, and was made man.  He suffered under Pontius Pilate, was buried, the third day He rose again, He ascended to the heavens, He sits at the right of God the Father almighty.  And he shall come to judge the living and the dead, of Whose kingdom there shall be no end.
And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord lifegiver, and proceeding from the Father and the Son.  With the Father and the Son He is to be adored and together glorified.  Who hath spoken through the prophets.
And one, holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church.  We confess one baptism for the remission of sins.  We expect the resurrection of the dead and the life of the age to come.  Amen.

[*The Nicene Creed, in the plural throughout, with numerous divergences from the usual Latin text.]


[e.g.]  May our sacrifice be accepted, Lord, in Thy sight, that it may please Thee.

While the chant at the fraction is sung by the choir, the Priest breaks the consecrated Bread, and places its parts in the form of a cross on the paten, naming the mysteries of Christ, which are commemorated in the liturgical year:
1.  Incarnation
6.  Death          2.  Birth          7.  Resurrection
3.  Circumcision   8.  Glory
4.  Epiphany   9.  Kingdom
5.  Passion

The priest with joined hands says:
Let us pray.

Knowing God the Author of our life, most dear brothers, and acknowledging the Lord the Creator of all things, with humbly confession of His lovingkindness, and with sedulous pleading let us pray; that both he may clemently ignore our sins, and make us with the whole affection of the heart to cry always unto Him, therefore saying:

Extending his hands he continues:
Our Father, Who art in heaven.
R/.  Amen.
Hallowed be Thy Name.
R/.  Amen.
Thy Kingdom come.
R/.  Amen.
Thy will be done, as in heaven, so on earth.
R/.  Amen.
Give us this day our daily bread.
R/.  Amen.
And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors.
R/.  Amen.
And lead us not into temptation.
R/.  Amen.
But deliver us from evil.
R/.  Amen.

Delivered from evil, confirmed always in good, may we deserve to serve unto Thee, our God and Lord.  Put, Lord, an end to our sins, give joy to the troubled, grant redemption to captives, health to the infirm, and rest to the dead.  Grant peace and security all our days.  Smash the audacity of our enemies.  And hear, O God, the prayers of Thy servants, all the Christian faithful, on this day and at all times.  Through our Lord Jesus Christ, Thy Son, Who with Thee liveth and reigneth in the unity of the Holy Ghost, God, through all ages of ages.
R/.  Amen.

The priest slightly elevates the paten and chalice, showing them to the people, saying:
The Holies for the holy.
He places the consecrated particle “Kingdom” into the chalice, saying:
And the union of the Body and Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ be unto us eating and drinking for forgiveness, and may the faithful departed be granted rest.

The deacon warns the people:
Humble yourselves for the blessing.
R/.  Thanks be to God.

The Lord be ever with you.
R/.  And with thy spirit.

Extending his hands, the priest blesses the people:

May you be accompanied by the blessing of the Lord everywhere, and may He make you ever to adhere to Him.
R/.  Amen.
May He save you by His blessing, Who hast deigned powerfully to form you.
R/.  Amen.
And may He grant you so happily to live, that He make you co-heirs by the merits of the saints.
R/.  Amen.

Through the mercy of the same our God, Who is blessed, and liveth and ruleth all, unto the ages of ages.
R/.  Amen.

The priest consumes the Lord’s Body and Blood, and then gives the same Gifts to the deacon.

The priest distributes the sacrament of the Body of Christ to the people, saying:
The Body of Christ be thy salvation.

The deacon ministers the chalice to the people, saying:
The Blood of Christ abide with thee as true redemption.


Taste and see how sweet is the Lord, alleluia, alleluia, alleluia.
V/.  I will bless the Lord at all times, ever his praise in my mouth.
R/.  Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia.
V/.  The Lord shall redeem the souls of his servants, and will not abandon all who hope in Him.
R/.  Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia.
V/.  Glory and honour to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Spirit, to the ages of the ages.  Amen.
R/.  Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia.


Refreshed by Christ’s Body and Blood, we praise Thee, Lord.
R/.  Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia.

Tasting, Lord, Thy sweetness and the fulness of Thy delight, we beseech that this be unto us for the remission of sins and for the health of our minds.
R/.  Amen.

By Thy mercy, our God, Who art blessed, and livest and rulest all, unto the ages of ages.
R/.  Amen.


The Lord be ever with you.
R/.  And with thy spirit.

The deacon:
The solemnities are completed.  In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, may our vow be accepted with peace.
R/.  Thanks be to God.

The priest venerates the altar with a kiss, and then, having made the due reverence with his ministers, he departs.

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